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Baroque - Movements

Baroque Art Prints and Posters



Aelst, Willem van 1627-c.1683
Angermayer, Johann Adalbert 1674-1740
Ast, Balthasar van der 1594-1657
Baschenis, Evaristo 1617-1677
Bassen, Bartholomeus van 1590-1652
Baugin, Lubin c.1610-1663
Beert, Osias c.1580-1624
Beyeren, Abraham Hendrickz van c.1620-1690
Boel, Pieter 1622-1674
Borgianni, Orazio 1578-1616
Bosschaert, Johannes c.1610-c.1650
Bosschaert, Jean Baptiste 1667-1746
Bosschaert the Elder, Ambrosius 1573-1621
Boulogne, Valentin de c.1594-1632
Bourdon, Sebastien 1616-1671
Bruegel the Elder, Jan 1568-1625
Canaletto, Giovanni Antonio Canal 1697-1768
Caravaggio, Michelangelo Merisi da 1571-1610
Claesz, Pieter c.1597-1660
Coello, Claudio 1642-1693
Collier, Edwaert 1640-1707
Dael, Jan Frans van 1764-1840
Delen, Dirck van c.1605-1671
Dyck, Sir Anthony van 1599-1641
Eeckhout, Gerbrand van den 1621-1674
Fetti, Domenico c.1589-1624
Flegel, Georg 1566-1638
Flinck, Govert 1615-1660
Gelder, Aert de 1645-1727
Heda, Willem Claesz 1594-1680
Heem, Jan Davidsz de c.1600-c.1683
Hobbema, Meindert 1638-1709
Huysum, Jan van 1682-1749
Jordaens, Jacob 1593-1678
Jouvenet, Jean 1644-1717
Kalf, Willem 1619-1693
Lievens, Jan 1607-1674
Lorrain, Claude c.1602-1682
Maes, Nicolaes 1634-1693
Mignon, Abraham 1640-1679
Oost, the Elder, Jacob van c.1601-1671
Poussin, Nicolas 1594-1665
Preti, Mattia 1613-1699
Rembrandt, van Rijn 1606-1669
Ribalta, Francisco c.1565-1628
Rubens, Peter Paul 1577-1640
Ruisdael, Jacob van c.1628-1682
Santerre, Jean-Baptiste 1651-1717
Snyders, Frans 1579-1657
Stomer, Matthias c.1600-1650
Teniers the Younger, David 1610-1690
Ter Borch, Gerard 1617-1681
Troger, Paul 1698-1762
Vaillant, Wallerant 1623-1677
Varallo, Tanzio da c.1575-1633
Velazquez, Diego Rodriguez de Silva 1599-1660
Vermeer, van Delft, Johannes 1632-1675
Wedig, Gottfried von c.1583-1641
Weenix, Jan 1640-1719
Weenix, Jan Baptist 1621-1660
Zurbaran, Francisco de 1598-1664
Baroque - Art Prints and Posters

In the arts, the Baroque was a Western cultural epoch, commencing roughly at the turn of the 17th century in Rome, Italy. It was exemplified by drama and grandeur in sculpture, painting, literature, dance, and music. In music, the term 'Baroque' applies to the final period of dominance of imitative counterpoint, where different voices and instruments echo each other but at different pitches, sometimes inverting the echo, and even reversing thematic material.

The popularity and success of the Baroque style was encouraged by the Roman Catholic Church which had decided at the time of the Council of Trent that the arts should communicate religious themes in direct and emotional involvement. The aristocracy also saw the dramatic style of Baroque architecture and art as a means of impressing visitors and expressing triumphant power and control. Baroque palaces are built around an entrance of courts, grand staircases and reception rooms of sequentially increasing opulence. In similar profusions of detail, art, music, architecture, and literature inspired each other in the Baroque cultural movement as artists explored what they could create from repeated and varied patterns. Some traits and aspects of Baroque paintings that differentiate this style from others are the abundant amount of details, often bright polychromy, less realistic faces of subjects, and an overall sense of awe, which was one of the goals in Baroque art.

Etymology
It is a French transliteration of the Portuguese phrase "perola barroca", which means "irregular pearl" an ancient similar word, "Barlocco" or "Brillocco", is used in the Roman dialect for the same meaning and natural pearls that deviate from the usual, regular forms so they do not have an axis of rotation are known as "baroque pearls". Others derive it from the mnemonic term "Baroco" denoting, in logical Scholastica, a supposedly laboured form of syllogism.

The term "Baroque" was initially used with a derogatory meaning, to underline the excesses of its emphasis. In particular, the term was used to describe its eccentric redundancy and noisy abundance of details, which sharply contrasted the clear and sober rationality of the Renaissance. It was first rehabilitated by the Swiss-born art historian, Heinrich Wolfflin (1864-1945) in his Renaissance und Barock (1888); Wolfflin identified the Baroque as "movement imported into mass," an art antithetic to Renaissance art. He did not make the distinctions between Mannerism and Baroque that modern writers do, and he ignored the later phase, the academic Baroque that lasted into the 18th century. Writers in French and English did not begin to treat Baroque as a respectable study until Wolfflin's influence had made German scholarship pre-eminent.

Evolution of the Baroque
Beginning around the year 1600, the demands for new art resulted in what is now known as the Baroque. The canon promulgated at the Council of Trent (1545-63) by which the Roman Catholic Church addressed the representational arts by demanding that paintings and sculptures in church contexts should speak to the illiterate rather than to the well-informed, is customarily offered as an inspiration of the Baroque, which appeared, however, a generation later. This turn toward a populist conception of the function of ecclesiastical art is seen by many art historians as driving the innovations of Caravaggio and the Carracci brothers, all of whom were working in Rome at that time.

The appeal of Baroque style turned consciously from the witty, intellectual qualities of 16th century Mannerist art to a visceral appeal aimed at the senses. It employed an iconography that was direct, simple, obvious, and dramatic. Baroque art drew on certain broad and heroic tendencies in Annibale Carracci and his circle, and found inspiration in other artists such as Caravaggio, and Federico Barocci nowadays sometimes termed 'proto-Baroque'.

Germinal ideas of the Baroque can also be found in the work of Michelangelo and Correggio.

Some general parallels in music make the expression "Baroque music" useful. Contrasting phrase lengths, harmony and counterpoint ousted polyphony, and orchestral color made a stronger appearance. Similar fascination with simple, strong, dramatic expression in poetry, where clear, broad syncopated rhythms replaced the enknotted elaborated metaphysical similes employed by Mannerists such as John Donne and imagery that was strongly influenced by visual developments in painting, can be sensed in John Milton's Paradise Lost, a Baroque epic.

Though Baroque was superseded in many centers by the Rococo style, beginning in France in the late 1720s, especially for interiors, paintings and the decorative arts, Baroque architecture remained a viable style until the advent of Neoclassicism in the later 18th century. A prominent example, the Neapolitan palace of Caserta, a Baroque palace (though in a chaste exterior) that was not even begun until 1752. Critics have given up talking about a "Baroque period."

In paintings, Baroque gestures are broader than Mannerist gestures: less ambiguous, less arcane and mysterious, more like the stage gestures of opera, a major Baroque artform. Baroque poses depend on contrapposto ("counterpoise"), the tension within the figures that moves the planes of shoulders and hips in counterdirections. It made the sculptures almost seem like they were about to move.

The drier, chastened, less dramatic and coloristic, later stages of 18th century Baroque architectural style are often seen as a separate Late Baroque manifestation. Academic characteristics in the neo-Palladian architectural style, epitomized by William Kent, are a parallel development in Britain and the British colonies: within doors, Kent's furniture designs are vividly influenced by the Baroque furniture of Rome and Genoa, hieratic tectonic sculptural elements meant never to be moved from their positions completing the wall elevation. Baroque is a style of unity imposed upon rich and massy detail.

The Baroque was defined by Heinrich Wolfflin as the age where the oval replaced the circle as the center of composition, balance replaced organization around a central axis, and coloristic and "painterly" effects began to become more prominent. Art historians, often Protestant ones, have traditionally emphasized that the Baroque style evolved during a time in which the Roman Catholic Church had to react against the many revolutionary cultural movements that produced a new science and new forms of religion the Reformation. It has been said that the monumental Baroque is a style that could give the Papacy, like secular absolute monarchies, a formal, imposing way of expression that could restore its prestige, at the point of becoming somehow symbolic of the Catholic Reformation. Whether this is the case or not, it was successfully developed in Rome, where Baroque architecture widely renewed the central areas with perhaps the most important urbanistic revision during this period of time.

Baroque painting
A defining statement of what Baroque signifies in painting is provided by the series of paintings executed by Peter Paul Rubens for Marie de Medici at the Luxembourg Palace in Paris (now at the Louvre), in which a Catholic painter satisfied a Catholic patron: Baroque-era conceptions of monarchy, iconography, handling of paint, and compositions as well as the depiction of space and movement.

There were highly diverse strands of Italian baroque painting, from Caravaggio to Cortona; both approaching emotive dynamism with different styles. Another frequently cited work of Baroque art is Bernini's Saint Theresa in Ecstasy for the Cornaro chapel in Saint Maria della Vittoria, which brings together architecture, sculpture, and theater into one grand conceit.

The later Baroque style gradually gave way to a more decorative Rococo, which, through contrast, further defines Baroque.

The intensity and immediacy of baroque art and its individualism and detail observed in such things as the convincing rendering of cloth and skin textures make it one of the most compelling periods of Western art.